When people want to know how to train for a marathon, they usually ask you for a training plan. This typically typically center around the following:
- What kinds of workouts you’re supposed do.
- How long those workouts should be.
- How long you have to train before you’re ready.
Answering these questions is very difficult (if not impossible). Everyone is different, and begins their training at a different point.
These questions are far too vague (or depending how you look at it, far too specific). It’s only a question that applies to you in particular. So instead of providing a training plan, I like to arrive at the issue from a different direction. The question I ask is:
How do you know that a body is ready for a marathon?
This question is much more useful. Why? Because being ready for a marathon is the same for every human.
The catch is that how to get there might be wildly different from one person to the next. For one particular person, your basic marathon training plan might be exactly what they need. Someone else may need to train for much longer, or with less intensity (or both). For yet another person, it might not include a crucial element that particular person needs—an element with which the training plan might work perfectly.
You’ll find that when you genuinely ask the above question—and truly inquire as to what it takes for a body to be physically and physiologically ready to run a marathon—you’ll inevitably conclude that ninety-five percent of the people who do cross the finish line of a marathon were not prepared to run the race.
I believe that one of the most important reasons that injury and illness is so rampant in the marathon is NOT because the marathon is inherently injurious, but rather because it is so physically and physiologically demanding—and the vast majority of people who run it have not achieved the capability of meeting those demands.
A major goal of mine in life is that people do NOT get injured running a marathon (or any other race). And I believe that a first step in that direction is to help people understand what “being ready for a marathon” really means from a physical and physiological standpoint—beginning with the idea that there is such a thing as being “marathon-ready.” Only then can we genuinely expect ourselves—the individuals who constitute a modern athletic culture—to face a marathon with every expectation of success.
I answer the question of marathon readiness in the following ways:
In order to run at peak efficiency, you must be able to sustain a cadence in the ballpark of 180 steps per minute (spm). This is important because the critical systems necessary for maximizing running economy only become activated at around that cadence. For an array of biomechanic and metabolic reasons, it’s important that our definition of “running” includes the activation of these critical systems. The above means that to run a marathon:
It is said that 99% of the energy that you use to run a marathon comes from the aerobic system. This means that you must be able to run the race at an overwhelmingly aerobic intensity. How fast?
- To be able to run the marathon distance at a pace that is 15 sec/mile faster than their speed at aerobic threshold.
Putting the two together
The above two requirements, when put together, give us a third, “master” requirement:
- You must be able to produce a cadence in the ballpark of 180 spm while running at a pace that is 15 sec/mile faster than your speed at aerobic threshold, and maintain it for the duration of the marathon.
A word on training load
There’s another way to look at this issue: how much someone needs to be able to sustainably train in a given week to be reasonably certain that they can run the race.
Sustainably means that there is no increase in stress, no nagging pains, and every reason to believe that the body can continue to train at that rate without injury.
So, a marathoner’s easy week should look like:
- A volume of twice the race distance (50-53 miles).
- An intensity that is exclusively aerobic (under the aerobic threshold).
*A good way to estimate the aerobic threshold without the need for a laboratory is by using Dr. Phil Maffetone’s 180-Formula. The 180-Formula produces the MAF HR, or Maximum Aerobic Function Heart Rate.
Sample easy week
All training is under the MAF HR, and cadence remains relatively close to 180 spm.
- Mon 7 mi
- Tue 9 mi
- Wed 7 mi
- Thu 9 mi
- Fri 7 mi
- Sat 12 mi
- Sun REST
There are no guarantees in life. But if you can run an easy week like this, I can be reasonably sure that you’re ready (or almost ready) to run a marathon. How to work up to this, and how to navigate the many pitfalls and angles of the journey, is the hard part.
Part of why I rarely give training plans or talk about these requirements—popular demand has essentially forced me to—is because you can’t really meet them if you haven’t ironed out all of the physiological, biomechanic, and neuromuscular issues your body may have.
(And again: that’s the hard part—and it’s the part that you can’t really address with a training plan.)
And even if the prospect of running a marathon has never been in your sights, once you do iron out enough of your body’s athletic issues, you’ll find that going on 25-odd mile, easy long runs every month has become a fact of life. You’ve become familiar with the distance—and the idea of running it a little faster with a lot of other people seems as simple as that.
(This post is about being ready for a marathon. How to become competitive at the marathon is, of course, a different question.)
2 thoughts on “Marathon Training, Part 1: Basic Requirements”
another great post… I think this is spot-on and contrasts interestingly with all those programs designed to get someone across the finish-line 4 months after their first run of 1 mile.
In my experience, it would take a person longer to get to the starting line following these principles, but they would be faster, less likely to be injured, and have a more solid foundation on which to keep building.
I was one of those ‘couch to Marathon’ people who got stuck as a shuffler because that’s what my original training program steered me into being. My gains thereafter were incremental at best. And a mere fraction of what they would have been had I trained more along the lines of your ideas.
Glad you liked it!
Yes, that’s certainly the case—it would take longer to train. Part of what I’m trying to do is to set a new bar or create a new idea of what being “marathon ready” means. For example, I can think of more than a few ways in which my body isn’t ready for a marathon, and I run a couple of marathons a year. It’s not about ONLY running a marathon when you’re fully, completely ready, but rather to see that there’s a pretty significant distance from the couch to the marathon, and to do what you can to travel that distance before you sign up for the race.